# Bizarre Love Triangle Explained

Earlier I wrote about issues I have with Tuples and Functions. It was kind of long, rambling and tangential, so I decided to write about some concrete examples of what I’m talking about.

My first example pertains to the FunctionN implementations. For the linear transformation drawer, I tried writing a DSL with some sort of function application syntax that maps to underlying Scala methods (e.g. a Parser for “functionCall(arg0, arg1, … argX)”). I would like to simply write one method that takes any function and gives back a Parser for that function:

def makeParser(functionX:SomeFunctionType):Parser[FunctionReturnType] = { ... }

val absParser = makeParser(math.abs _)
val powParser = makeParser(math.pow _)

What do I put in for SomeFunctionType? Nothing makes sense. Instead, I have to write makeParser1Arg, makeParser2Arg, etc. Code repetition should be avoided – but in this case, there’s no way around it. Even the Scala core library “solves” this problem through code repetition (that is, Scala has a TON of copypasta in FunctionN and TupleN).

As a second example, I wrote a simple grapher for the Lorenz Attractor that plotted each individual coordinate over time. I wanted to show each coordinate in a different color and also laid out below each other:

So I wrote a method that looked like this:

def draw(color:Int, y:Float, list:Seq[Float]) = {
translate(0, y);
stroke(color);
//handle draw...
}

I have a Seq[(Float, Float, Float)] representing the attractor’s states as it progresses through time. I can use unzip3 to get a (Seq[Float], Seq[Float], Seq[Float]) holding each individual coordinate as it progresses through time. Now, I want to call draw three times, passing each Seq as the third argument. I could hard-code it like so:

//the original seq of the attractor's states
val states:Seq[(Float, Float, Float)] = ...

//Three Seqs of individual coordinates
val coords = states.unzip3;

draw(color(255, 0, 0), 0, coords._1);
draw(color(0, 255, 0), height/3f, coords._2);
draw(color(0, 0, 255), height*2/3f, coords._3);

The code repetition is pretty blatant. What if I wanted to draw 10 different lines? What about 100? Instead of explicitly calling draw with different values, I’d like to create two other containers – be them lists, tuples, whatever – holding the corresponding colors and y coordinates to be passed to the draw method.

val colors = List(color(255, 0, 0), color(0, 255, 0), color(0, 0, 255));
val ys     = List(0f, height/3f, height*2/3f);

FunctionN’s have a .tupled method to let you pass a single TupleN to the function, letting you treat the arguments to pass to a Function as one object. All I have to do now is combine the three coords, colors, and ys Seqs into one Seq of Tuple3s, with each Tuple3 holding the corresponding arguments to pass to draw.

//combine colors, ys, and coords somehow
val args:Seq[(Int, Float, Seq[Float])] = ...

args foreach (draw _).tupled //pass each set of args to the draw method

How do I do it? The answer is: very ugily (like, ugly-ly?). At the very least, you have to convert the coords from a Tuple3 of Seq[Float]s into a Seq of Seq[Float]s. There is no pretty way to do this. You can explicitly code it:

//ewwwww
val coordsList = Seq(coords._1, coords._2, coords._3);

Or you can use the productIterator method of Tuple3, and then cast to an iterator of Seq[Float]s:

//oh my jesus
val coordsList = coords.productIterator.asInstanceOf[Iterator[Seq[Float]]];

The first option isn’t extensible (if you want to plot a 5-dimensional attractor you’ll need to go back and explicitly change the code); the second option isn’t type-safe (if coords isn’t actually ALL Seq[Float]s, this won’t even exception until we try to actually explicitly grab one of the elements, at god knows what place).

But lets say we’ve gotten beyond that. Now we want to create the args sequence. We basically want the inverse of unzip3, taking in three seq arguments (one of them can be the caller) and outputting one Seq of Tuple3s. Seq has a “zip” method that does very, very close to what we want; Seq.zip only takes one argument and outputs a Seq of Tuple2s. But it’s not good enough. You can’t chain a zip with another zip, because that still only creates a Tuple2.

//Seq[(Int, Float)]
val args2 = colors.zip(ys)

//Seq[((Int, Float), Seq[Float])]
val almost = args2.zip(coordsList)

Here are some solutions I’ve ended up with:

//iterate through the index
val args = for(i &lt;- 0 until colors.length) yield (colors(i), ys(i), coordsList(i))

//same thing only slower! wooooo!
val args = colors.zipWithIndex.map { case (c, i) =&gt; (c, ys(i), coordsList(i)) }

//actually not terrible
val args = almost.map{ case ((a, b), c) =&gt; (a, b, c) }

# Bizarre Love Triangle

Correct me if I’m wrong (and I’m sure I am), but I’m not sold on the Tuple and Function implementations in Scala. A Tuple is just a typed wrapper around multiple elements, allowing you to treat multiple objects as one object. Their difference with other wrapper/container constructs like List (or Collection in general) is that we know, at compile time, a) the number of elements and b) the type of each element. Functions follow a similar compile-time pattern, since you know the number and type of elements for the function at compile time. Tuples are very useful constructs – for example, you can imagine any n-arity Function as being a 1-arity Function taking a single TupleN argument; this elegance is expressed in Scala’s FunctionX.tupled, overloaded for functions of arity two through five. If you have some Traversable of Tuple2s, you can create a Tuple2 of Traversables holding the corresponding elements of each Tuple2 by simply calling Traversable.unzip. There’s a similar method for Tuple3’s called unzip3.

Unfortunately, design imperfections start to creep in when you try taking advantage of Tuples. None of the TupleNs have any class relation to each other except for all being subclasses of Product. I haven’t explicitly run into this problem yet, but it’s still troubling to think that Scala treats Tuple1._1, Tuple2._1, and Tuple3._1 as completely different properties. Product has a productElement(int) method that returns the nth element of the Product, but the guarantee is so weak that the method a) returns an Any and b) can only throw a runtime exception. productElement breaks both type safety and compile time guards, two of Scala’s stronger selling points. productIterator similarly returns an Iterator[Any]. I’m not sure why productIterator can’t return an iterator of the common supertype of all its elements. None of the FunctionN’s are even related to each other except for AnyRef. The Function object’s tupled, untupled, and uncurried methods have separate, overloaded implementations for Function2, Function3, Function4, and Function5. Function lacks a method returning the number of arguments it takes, which I feel should be easily done without copypasta. I guess the number of arguments is embedded within the Function’s type, but that’s programmatically annoying and unintuitive to access. unzip and unzip3 exist and satisfy most use cases, but it smells (as a consequence of the way Tuples are implemented). Code repetition is to be avoided – but the Scala core library itself contains lots of repetition on this front.

I feel like the problem lies in characterizing the relationship between Tuples of different sizes. We can think of any Tuple2 as a Tuple3 with an “empty” element (perhaps a Tuple3[A, B, Nothing] type or Tuple3[A, B, Unit]); a Tuple3 can also be seen as a Tuple4 with an “empty” element, etc. etc. One could put some upper limit on the Tuple arity (Scala’s already doing this) and have all other Tuples descend from that class, but there will still be a bunch of code boilerplate (create 21 classes, with each TupleN extending Tuple(N+1)), and the performance penalty of carrying a bunch of Units around would be hefty to say the least (perhaps specialization could help us here). Also, is Tuple3[A, Nothing, B] the same “thing” as Tuple3[A, B, Nothing]? I guess it depends on the application and programmer to assign meaning to the elements in the Tuple. If we instead build up, a Tuple3 can be seen as a Tuple2[A, Tuple2[B, C]]; a Tuple4 is a Tuple3[A, Tuple2[B, Tuple2[C, D]], or some similar Tuple nesting scheme, etc. etc. This looks to be a more reasonable approach to building Tuples, and is also the way Lisp and most of FP does it. Scala’s own List class has :: and Nil. The relation between Tuples and Lists is something to be explored. This connection is further complicated when Functions enter the scene, especially with regards to function currying. Naively, I think the problem lies in that there are multiple representations, in code, to achieve roughly the same meaning, and that there are no ways to easily convert from one representation to another. A Function3[A, B, C, R] and a Function1[(A, B, C), R] and a Function3[(A), (B), (C), (R)] and a Function2[(A, B), C, R] could all be the same thing. I don’t even want to get into the different ways you could group smaller Tuples to create a larger one.